The managing director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), as of this printing; appointed in May 2000. From September 1998 to May 2000, Kohler was president of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. He served as president of the German Savings Bank Association from 1993 to 1998. From 1990 to 1993 he was Germany’s Deputy Minister of Finance, and was responsible for overseeing Germany’s international financial relations. In that role, he led negotiations of the Maastricht treaty, which laid the groundwork for the European Economic and Monetary Union, the precursor for the formation of the euro.