The history of Ethiopia therefore as an independent civilization may be said to date from the 8th century B.C., though future researches may be able to carry its infant origins to a remoter past.
Even in the Shumadia, where materials are plentiful, the roads rapidly give way under heavy traffic, or after bad weather; in the Machva, Podrinye and remoter districts, they are often impassable.
A few bears and wild boars and lynxes find shelter in the remoter forests, with many badgers, wolves, foxes, wildcats, martens and weasels.
All land journeys are made on horseback, and in the remoter parts all goods have to be transported by the same means.
Without effort, and even without intention probably, it looked beyond first consequences to the farther or the final outcome; and to complete the operation, the faculty which detected the remoter consequences did not allow them to remain in obscurity, but brought them out as actualities no less than the first and perhaps far more important than the first.