Ash averages 5.7 per cent., about half of which is soluble in water.
The rate per head of population within the United Kingdom has not increased much during recent years, and in the Australasian colonies it has apparently fallen greatly as compared with recorded averages of 12 lb per head in Victoria and 9 lb in New South Wales in 1884.
The salinity of the surface water of the southern section of the Caspian averages 1.5%.
In any case results deduced from the annual wave must be expected to vary in different years according to the distribution of the rainfall, as the values represent averages depending chiefly on the diffusion of heat by percolating water.
The following averages will serve to illustrate the climate of Poland: - Flora.