Of especial note is the transformation of maltose by maltase into glucose, and of cane sugar by invertase into a mixture of glucose and fructose (invert sugar); other instances are: lactose by lactase into galactose and glucose; trehalose by trehalase into glucose; melibiose by melibiase into galactose and glucose; and of melizitose by melizitase into touranose and glucose, touranose yielding glucose also when acted upon by the enzyme touranase.
The hexoses so obtained are not necessarily identical: thus cane sugar yields d-glucose and d-fructose (invert sugar); milk sugar and melibiose give d-glucose and d-galactose, whilst maltose yields only glucose.
Lactose is thus found to be glucosido-galactose and melibiose a galactosido-glucose.
Boletus edulis, in the Oriental Trehala and in ergot of rye; melibiose, C12H22011, formed, with fructose, on hydrolysing the trisaccharose melitose (or raffinose), C18H32016.5H20, which occurs in Australian manna and in the molasses of sugar manufacture; touranose, C12H22011, formed with d-glucose and galactose on hydrolysing another trisaccharose, melizitose, C,8H32016 2H20, which occurs in Pinus larix and in Persian manna; and agavose, C12H22011, found in the stalks of Agave americana.
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