- (theology) In moral theology, the concept that human life can be a means to some other end and not solely an end itself.
- (Should we delete(+) this redundant sense?) (theology, Catholic) According to Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI, an opposite state to the "culture of life".
- (Should we delete(+) this redundant sense?) (politics) In contemporary political discourse, a culture that is deemed to be inconsistent with the concept of a "culture of life", such as cultures that support abortion, euthanasia, degradation, humiliation, human cloning, self-absorption, apathy, poverty and capital punishment . Some commentators would add to that list homosexuality, contraception and other phenomena perceived to attack marriage and the family.
- A society that reveres suicide bombers as martyrs.