C. antiquorum, are characterized by the large frontal horn of the bulls, the white legs, the network type of coloration and the pale tint.
By the famous Golden Bull of 1356 Frankfort was declared the seat of the imperial elections, and it still preserves an official contemporaneous copy of the original document as the most precious of the eight imperial bulls in its possession.
Only the bulls have horns, and these are short and insignificant.
C. rothschildi also has a large frontal horn and white legs, but the spots in the bulls are very dark and those of the females jagged.
C. tippelskirchi the frontal horn is often developed in the bulls, but the legs are frequently spotted to the fetlocks.