Gesellschaft, 1892), and in I894 he was able to write a little manual of Egyptian for beginners (Agyplische Grammatik, 2nd ed., 1902), centring on the language of the standard inscriptions of the Middle and New Kingdoms, but accompanying the main sketch with references to earlier and later forms. Of the work of Ermans pupils we may mention G Steindorifs ~ttle Koptische Grammatik (1894, ed 1904), improving greatly on Sterns standard work in regard to phonology and the relationship of Coptic forms to Egyptian, and K.
For this purpose they instituted a severe system of discipline, divided their members into three classes - the Perfect, the Proficient, and the Beginners, and appointed over each congregation a body of lay elders.
As the attendance at his classes continually increased - pagans thronging; to him as well as Christians - he handed over the beginners to his friend Heracles, and took charge of the more advanced pupils himself.
The sages may be regarded as the beginners of a universal religion: they felt the need of permanent principles of life, and were able to set aside to some extent the local features of the current creed.
Each gild numbered various classes of members, ranging from beginners, or Schiller (corresponding to trade-apprentices), and Schulfreunde (who were equivalent to Gesellen or journeymen), to Meister, a Meister being a poet who was not merely able to write new verses to existing melodies but had himself invented a new melody.