The use of the old cisterns within the walls has been almost entirely abandoned, and the water is led to basins in vaulted chambers (Taxim), from which it is distributed by underground conduits to the fountains situated in the different quarters of the city.
The waters of the river are carried by channels and conduits to all the houses of the city.
When a number of cables follow the same route, they are generally laid in conduits made up of earthenware or cement ducts; iron pipes are used when the number of cables is small.
The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.
- New York Rapid Transit railway, showing also the tracks and conduits of the electric surface tramway.