Away from land and more probably were caused by subsidence; the old river-channels known to exist below sea-level, as well as the former land connexion with New Guinea, seem to point to the conditions assumed in Darwin's well-known subsidence theory, and any facts that appear to be inconsistent with the theory of a steady and prolonged subsidence are explainable by the assumption of a slight upheaval.
The Cretaceous period was initiated by the subsidence of a large area to the south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, whereby a Lower Cretaceous sea spread southward, across western Queensland, western New South Wales and the north-eastern districts of South Australia.
A theory of a still continuing subsidence of the islands was formed by Kurz in 1866 and confirmed by Oldham in 1884.
Suess,' who points out that the plan of the earth is the result of Suess two movements of the crust - one, subsidence over theory.
This theory of crust blocks dropped by subsidence is opposed to Lapworth's theory of vast crust-folds, but geology is the science which has to decide between them.
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