transitive verb in·clud·ed
- To take in as a part, element, or member.
- To contain as a secondary or subordinate element.
- To consider with or place into a group, class, or total: thanked the host for including us.
Origin: Middle English includen
Origin: , from Latin inclūdere, to enclose
Origin: : in-, in; see in-2
Origin: + claudere, to close
- in·cludˈa·ble, in·cludˈi·ble adjective
Some writers insist that include
be used only when it is followed by a partial list of the contents of the referent of the subject. Therefore, one may write New England includes Connecticut and Rhode Island,
but one must use comprise
or consist of
to provide full enumeration: New England comprises (not includes) Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine.
This restriction is too strong. Include
does not rule out the possibility of a complete listing. Thus the sentence The bibliography should include all the journal articles you have used
does not entail that the bibliography must contain something other than journal articles, though it does leave that possibility open. The use of comprise
or consist of,
however, will avoid ambiguity when a listing is meant to be exhaustive. Thus the sentence The task force includes all of the Navy units on active duty in the region
allows for the possibility that Marine and Army units are also taking part, where the same sentence with comprise
would entail that the task force contained only Navy forces. See Usage Note at comprise