The Ypanema mine and ironworks, near Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, which belong to the national government, have been in operation since 1810, and small charcoal forges were in operation in colonial times and supplied the mines with a considerable part of the iron needed by them.
Iron is worked in the vicinity, and there are important forges and foundries.
Coals richer in hydrogen, on the other hand, are more useful for burning in open fires - smiths' forges and furnaces - where a long flame is required.
There are ship-yards, iron foundries and forges, machine shops, shirt factories, a pottery for the manufacture of sanitary earthenware, a woollen mill and canning factories.
The Leeds and Liverpool Canal intersects the township. There are large collieries, ironworks, forges, railway wagon works, and cotton mills.