He held that England's according the rights of belligerents to the Confederate states had doubled the duration of the war, entailing inestimable loss.
18 1916 he addressed a note to all the European belligerents, asking, for the sake of safety of those on board, that all guns be removed from merchantmen.
The first was the recognition of the Southern States as belligerents and a general manifestation of unfriendliness in other ways.
It seemed exceptional, for in addition to the usual reasons which justified the other belligerents in instituting official press bureaus and censors to control seditious utterances, the United States faced conditions unknown to them.
The De jure exerted little influence on the practice of belligerents, yet its publication was an epoch in the science.