Briefly, sugar-refining consists of melting raw or unrefined sugar with water into a syrup of 27° to 28° Beaume, or 1230 specific gravity, passing it through filtering cloth to remove the sand and other matters in mechanical suspension, and then through animal charcoal to remove all traces of colouring matter and lime, thus producing a perfectly clear white syrup, which, cooked in the vacuum pan and crystallized, becomes the refined sugar of commerce.
According to this authority Jovinian in 388 was living at Rome the celibate life of an ascetic monk, possessed a good acquaintance with the Bible, and was the author of several minor works, but, undergoing an heretical change of view, afterwards became a self-indulgent Epicurean and unrefined sensualist.
In Australia, the United States, Japan and some other countries, the Mints receive unrefined gold from the mines and refine it before it is coined.
Mining taxes, which are subject to periodic changes, consist of an initial or registry tax on the claim (pertenencia), an annual or rental tax on each claim, and a tax of 32% (1905) on the export of unrefined gold and silver, 21% on partially refined ores, and 12% on pure silver.
Gold, silver, copper and other minerals are largely exported, chiefly in an unrefined state and almost entirely to the United States.