Even with the particles retarding the motion of the aether, the same will be true if, to counterbalance the increased inertia, suitable forces are caused to act on the aether at all points where the inertia is altered.
The product of the total capacity and the total resistance, both the capacity and the resistance having a retarding effect on the signals.
For working long submarine cables the apparatus ordinarily employed on land lines cannot be used, as the retarding effect of the electrostatic capacity of the cable is so marked that signals fail to be recorded except at a very slow speed of working.
By applying these early in the season, great benefit may be derived from retarding the blossom till the frosty nights of spring have passed.
The French Revolution and the insecurity of the political situation, however, exercised a depressing and retarding effect.