Meanwhile Gustavus Adolphus had landed in Germany, and the elector had refused to allow him to cross the Elbe at Wittenberg, thus hindering his attempt to relieve Magdeburg.
Meyer (Ber., 18 94, 2 7, p. 510 et seq.) showed that in benzenoid compounds ortho-substituents exert a great hindering effect on the esterification of alcohols by acids in the presence of hydrochloric acid, this hindering being particularly marked when two substituents are present in the ortho positions to the carboxyl group. In such a case the ester is best prepared by the action of an alkyl halide on the silver salt of the acid, and when once prepared, can only be hydrolysed with great difficulty.
It is moreover an astringent to the tissues, hindering the further discharge of fluid.
Canvas diaphragms were used to prevent the acid formed by electrolysis at the anode from mixing with the cathode liquor, and so hindering deposition.
The total output for the state in 1908 was 114,459 tons, valued at $12,134,556; of this 116,J31 tons came from the central and southeast field, and of the remainder 15,240 tons from the Webb CityProsperity camp. Zinc was originally a hindering by-product of lead mining in the south-west, and was thrown away; but it long ago became the chief product in value in this field.