After his return to Morocco at the age of twentyeight, he began preaching and agitating, heading riotous attacks on wine-shops and on other manifestations of laxity.
The liver being regarded as the seat of the blood, it was a natural and short step to identify the liver with the soul as well as with the seat of life, and therefore as the centre of all manifestations of vitality and activity.
If, therefore, one understood the signs noted on a particular liver, one entered, as it were, into the mind - as one of the manifestations of soul-life of the deity who had assimilated the being of the animal to his own being.
It but remains to call attention to the fact that the earlier view of the liver as the seat of the soul gave way among many ancient nations to the theory which, reflecting the growth of anatomical knowledge, assigned that function to the heart, while, with the further change which led to placing the seat of soul-life in the brain, an attempt was made to partition the various functions of manifestations of personality among the three organs, brain, heart and liver, the intellectual activity being assigned to the first-named; the higher emotions, as love and courage, to the second; while the liver, once the master of the entire domain of soul-life as understood in antiquity, was degraded to serve as the seat of the lower emotions, such as jealousy, anger and the like.
Joseph Bonaparte, then occupaFrench envoy to the Vatican, encouraged democratic tion of manifestations; and one of them, at the close of 1797, Rome.
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