But there was a growing estrangement from Athens, which ended at length in an open breach.
In his attitude towards Arabi, the would-be saviour of Egypt, Abd-ul-Hamid showed less than his usual astuteness, and the resulting consolidation of England's hold over the country contributed still further to his estrangement from Turkey's old ally.
A violent article, in which he demanded the annexation of Hanover and Saxony, and attacked with great bitterness the Saxon royal house, led to an estrangement from his father, who enjoyed the warm friendship of the king.
The causes of their subsequent estrangement are obscure, but it was possibly due to the empress's lavish expenditure in charity and church building, which endeared her to ecclesiastics but was a serious drain on the imperial finances.
Throughout the reign of Arcadius there was estrangement and jealousy between the two brothers or their governments.