France in 178 9, though its ancient provincial boundaries survived, had long since been welded into a nation conscious of its common interests; Russia remains a vast empire, composed of the most heterogeneous, sometimes even mutually hostile, elements., whose antagonisms were bound to be an element of weakness in any assembly truly representative of all sections of the people.
Paul's want of political wisdom, and his ignorance of human nature aroused antagonisms fatal.
At Berlin, somewhat against his will, he was drawn into a controversy on the Apostles' Creed, in which the party antagonisms within the Prussian Church had found expression.
The popular majority kept up the feeling of hostility to the royal authority in recurrent combats in the legislative assembly over the salary to be voted to the governor; though these antagonisms were from time to time forgotten in the wars with the French and Indians.
Like St Francis, Waldo adopted a life of poverty that he might be free to preach, but with this difference that the Waldenses preached the doctrine of Christ while the Franciscans preached the person of Christ, Waldo reformed teaching while Francis kindled love; hence the one awakened antagonisms which the other escaped.