With both are elected an equal number of substitutes, who assume office in case of vacancy.
Since the adoption of an aquatic mode of life by Desis and Argyroneta involves no increased facilities in getting food, and merely substitutes for ordinary terrestrial enemies fishes and crustaceans in the former case, and fishes, amphibians, and insectivorous water-insects in the latter, the supposition is justified that the change in environment is due to the unremitting persecution of Pompilidae and Ichneumonidae, which would not venture to pursue their prey beneath the water's surface.
It is, for instance, practically impossible to obtain reliable evidence as to the regularity of employment in any industry in the 17th century, and the best approximations and devices we can invent are very poor substitutes for what we really want.
Speaking generally, when given in small doses their action on the healthy organism is slight or nil, but in disease some of them are capable of acting as substitutes for deficient secretions.
Substitutes for this, such as the strawlike material used in making hat shapes, are also known by the same name.