The cities, exposed to pillage by Huns in the north and Saracens in the south, and ravaged on the coast by Norse pirates, asserted their right to enclose themselves with walls, and taught their burghers the use of arms. Within the circuit of their ramparts, the bishops already began to exercise authority in rivalry with the counts, to whom, since the days of Theodoric, had been entrusted the government of the Italian burghs.
The pest even crossed the oceans, and appeared in Australia, at Geelong, about 1880; it has since twice broken out in Victoria, and has ravaged the vineyards of South Australia and New South Wales.
O'Neill ravaged the Pale, failed in an attempt on Dundalk, made a truce with the MacDonnells, and sought help from the earl of Desmond.
A disastrous famine ravaged the land for three long years, and when Yahweh was consulted the reply came that there was " blood upon Saul and upon his house because he put the Gibeonites to death."
Subsequently he invaded and ravaged Elis, forcing the Eleans to acknowledge the freedom of their perioeci and to allow Spartans to take part in the Olympic games and sacrifices.