The reconstructive work necessary after the ravages of the war was enormous.
Meanwhile the Magyars had renewed their ravages and were attacking Augsburg.
However, after the peace between Charles and Louis in 860 Robert came to terms with his sovereign, who made him count of Anjou and of Blois, and entrusted him with the defence of that part of his kingdom which lay between the Seine and the Loire, a district which had suffered greatly from the ravages of the Normans and the Bretons.
But of these deliberate early records a very small portion only has escaped the ravages of time and barbarism.
There was only one country where its ravages were long unimportant; that was its home in the United States, where the native vines had become, by the operation of natural selection, immune to its attacks.