Scare off the birds, harrow up the weeds, cut down all that shades the crop. Ploughs, waggons, threshing-sledges, harrows, baskets, hurdles, winnowing-fans are the farmer's implements.
Harrows and cultivators are used where there are few weeds, and the mulching process is the one desired.
Unfortunately very few of these harrows have come down to us unplundered, and we cannot find one complete example and take it as a type.
A loose layer of earth spread over the surface of the soil acts in the same way, and a similarly effective mulch may be prepared by hoeing the soil, or stirring it to a depth of one or two inches with harrows or other implements.
To prevent this various implements, such as disk harrows and specially constructed rollers, may be used to consolidate the upper stirred portion of the soil and place it in close capillary relationship with the lower unmoved layer.