Later traditions may be read in Carpzov's Introductio, pars 3, cap. xvi.
3 Ethices, Pars tertia, Praefatio.
For some time it was considered that he was a mere office-holder dependent on the will of the bishop with a jurisdiction merely " vicarial "; but by the 13th century it was settled that he held a " benefice " and that his jurisdiction over causes was ordinary and independent of the bishop (Van Espen, pars i.
In the Low Countries, France and England the jurisdiction of the official principal was wider (Van Espen, pars i.