Signaling and control that takes places over the same physical path (i.e., through the same switches and across the same circuit) and either occupies the same frequencies or competes for the same time slots as the user payload. In-band signaling is intrusive, or disruptive, in nature. As examples, touch-tone signals can disrupt a voice conversation and call-waiting alerts can terminate a modem connection. T-carrier signaling clearly is in-band rather than out-of-band, as it involves bit robbing, which periodically replaces payload bits with signaling bits. E-carrier signaling and control occurs exclusively in time slots reserved for that purpose. See also frequency, out-of-band signaling and control, payload, signaling and control, and time slot.