We may begin with one taken from Bacon's Essay of Prophecies:- " When I was in France, I heard from one Dr Pena, that the queen mother, who was given to curious arts, caused the king her husband's nativitie to be calculated, under a false name; and the astrologer gave a judgment, that he should be killed in a duell; at which the queene laughed, thinking her husband to be above challenges and duels; but he was slaine, upon a course at tilt, the splinters of the staffe of Mongomery going in at his bever."
Among the Arabs the actions of magic and of spirits are regarded as at least as probable and common as duels and concealments of wills in European society.
With them came land speculation, litigiousness, the development of mines and mining-camp law, and the passion of politics, of which duels were one feature of early days.
Before his last fatal encounter he was twice engaged in duels with editors of rival papers.
On the Calcutta maidan, opposite Alipur Bridge, stood two trees under which duels were fought.