(third-person singular simple present closes, present participle closing, simple past and past participle closed)
- (physical) To remove a gap.
- To obstruct (an opening).
- To move so that an opening is closed.
- Close the door behind you when you leave.
- Jim was listening to headphones with his eyes closed.
- To make (e.g. a gap) smaller.
- The runner in second place is closing the gap on the leader.
- to close the ranks of an army
- To grapple; to engage in close combat.
- (social) To finish, to terminate.
- To put an end to; to conclude; to complete; to finish; to consummate.
- close the session; to close a bargain; to close a course of instruction
- To come to an end.
- The debate closed at six o'clock.
- (marketing) To make a sale.
- (baseball, pitching) To make the final outs, usually three, of a game.
- He has closed the last two games for his team.
- (figuratively, computing) To terminate an application, window, file or database connection, etc.
- To come or gather around; to enclose; to encompass; to confine.
- (surveying) To have a vector sum of 0; that is, to form a closed polygon.
From Middle English closen (“to close, enclose”), partly continuing (in altered form) earlier Middle English clusen ("to close"; from Old English clȳsan (“to close, shut”); compare beclose, forclose, etc.); and partly derived from the Middle English adjective clos (“close, shut up, confined, secret”), from Old French clos (“close, confined”, adjective), from Latin clausus (“shut up”, past participle), from claudere (“to bar, block, close, enclose, bring an end to, confine”), from Proto-Indo-European *klāw- (“key, hook, nail”), related to Latin clāvis (“key, deadbolt, bar”), clāvus (“nail, peg”), claustrum (“bar, bolt, barrier”), claustra (“dam, wall, barricade, stronghold”). Cognate with Ancient Greek κλείς (kleis, “bar, bolt, key”), German schließen (“to close, conclude, lock”), Dutch sluiten (“to close, conclude, lock”). Replaced Old English lūcan (“to close, lock, enclose”).
(comparative closer, superlative closest)
- (now rare) Closed, shut.
- Narrow; confined.
- a close alley; close quarters
- At a little distance; near.
- Is your house close?
- Intimate; well-loved.
- He is a close friend.
- (law) Of a corporation or other business entity, closely held.
- Oppressive; without motion or ventilation; causing a feeling of lassitude.
- (Ireland, England, Scotland, weather) Hot, humid, with no wind.
- (linguistics, phonetics, of a vowel) Articulated with the tongue body relatively close to the hard palate.
- Strictly confined; carefully guarded.
- a close prisoner
- her close intent
- Nearly equal; almost evenly balanced.
- a close contest
- to cut grass or hair close
- (archaic) Dense; solid; compact.
- (archaic) Concise; to the point.
- close reasoning
- (dated) Difficult to obtain.
- Money is close.
- (dated) Parsimonious; stingy.
- Adhering strictly to a standard or original; exact.
- a close translation
- Accurate; careful; precise; also, attentive; undeviating; strict.
- The patient was kept under close observation.
From French clos, from Latin clausum, participle of claudo.