The Cuban policy of Presidents Pierce and Buchanan (during 1853-1861) was vainly directed to acquiring the island.
Among the presidents of Amherst College have been in 1845-1854 and in 1876-1890 respectively - Edward Hitchcock, the famous geologist, and the Rev. Julius H.
The Mithraic community of worshippers, besides being a spiritual fraternity, was a legal corporation enjoying the right of holding property, with temporal officials at its head, like any other sodalitas: there were the decuriones and decem primi, governing councils resembling assembly and senate in cities; magistri, annually elected presidents; curatores, financial agents; defensores, advocates; and patroni, protectors among the influential.
In 1906 Dr Affonso Penna, three times minister under Pedro II., and at that time governor of the state of Minas-Geraes, of which he had founded the new capital, Bello Horizonte, was elected president, a choice due to a coalition of the other states against Sao Paulo, to which all the recent presidents had belonged.