The title of renewer of French liberty; but Elabora- remaining faithful to his hesitating policy of the (Ion of the 23rd of June, he ratified the decrees of the 4th of constitu- August, only with a very ill grace.
In the contested election of 1159, for instance, though a majority of the cardinals had elected Cardinal Roland (Alexander III.), the defeated candidate Cardinal Octavian (Victor IV.), while his rival was modestly hesitating to accept the honour, seized the pluviale and put it on his own shoulders hastily, upside down; and it was on this ground that the council of Pavia in r 160 based their declaration in favour of Victor, and anathematized Alexander.
He put them down with ease; the one was imprisoned for life, the other driven into exile, while Waltheof, the last of the English earls, who had dabbled in a hesitating way in this plot, was executed.
The latter marched into Asia Minor and defeated the Mongols in the bloody battle of Ablastan, the modern Albistan (1277); but, when he advanced farther to Caesarea, Mum ed-din Suleiman retired, hesitating to join him at the very moment of action.
The advocates of change were discontented with the hesitating acceptance which their principles had obtained.