Grimm's lawGrimm's Law
the statement of a series of systematic prehistoric changes of reconstructed Indo-European consonants to Proto-Germanic consonants: these hypothesized prehistoric sound shifts are reflected by consonant correspondences between Germanic words and their cognates in non-Germanic Indo-European languages: (1) IE voiceless stops (p, t, k) = Gmc voiceless fricatives (f, ?, h); hence, L pater (cf. paternal) = E father, L tenuis (cf. tenuous) = E thin, Gr kardia (cf. cardiac) = E heart (2) IE voiced stops (b, d, g) = Gmc voiceless stops (p, t, k); hence, L bucca (cf. buccal) = OE pohha, a sack, L decem (cf. decimal) = E ten, L genu (cf. genuflect) = E knee, which has lost the (k) sound (3) IE voiced aspirated stops (b + h, d + h, g + h) = Gmc voiced stops (b, d, g); hence, Sans bhr?tar = E brother, Sans m?dhu, honey = E mead, IE *ghostis = E guest These correspondences show the kinship, stressed in the etymologies of this dictionary, between various native English words and the English words borrowed from any of the non-Germanic Indo-European languages
Origin of Grimm's lawafter Jakob Grimm in honor of his formulation (1822) of parallels noted by himself and R. K. Rask
A formula describing the regular changes undergone by Indo-European stop consonants represented in Germanic, essentially stating that Indo-European p, t, and k became Germanic f, th, and h; Indo-European b, d, and g became Germanic p, t, and k; and Indo-European bh, dh, and gh became Germanic b, d, and g.
Origin of Grimm's LawAfterJakob Ludwig Karl Grimm
- (linguistics) A sound change that affected the Proto-Indo-European stop consonants in the development of Proto-Germanic, causing devoicing or change into a fricative.
- (linguistics) The description of this sound change (as originally formulated by Jacob Grimm), which establishes a set of regular correspondences between early Germanic stops and fricatives, and the consonants of Proto-Indo-European and most other Indo-European languages.
Named for Jacob Grimm.