A railway, built in 1909-1910, connects Khartum, Wad Medani and Sennar with Kordofan, the White Nile being bridged near Goz Abu Guma.
They occupy the country west of the White Nile between the Shilluk territory and Dar Nuba, being found principally in Kordofan.
The exploration of the river followed the ascent of the White Nile by the Egyptian expeditions of 1839-1842.
On it converge various trade routes, notably from Darfur and from Dueim, a town on the White Nile 125 m.
The Bagirmese proper are a vigorous, well-formed race of NegroidArab blood, who, according to their own traditions, came from the eastward several centuries ago, a tradition borne out by their language, which resembles those spoken on the White Nile.