Mazzini, now openly hostile to the monarchy, was seized with a perfect monomania for insurrections, and promoted various small risings, the only effect of which was to show how completely his influence was gone.
Risings broke out at Urbino and in Romagna, and the papal troops were defeated; Cesare could find no allies, and it seemed as though all Italy was about to turn against the hated family, when the French king promised help, and this was enough to frighten the confederates into coming to terms. Most of them had shown very little political or military skill, and several were ready to betray each other.
Of these risings the most notable was that, in the earlier half of the 14th century, against Louis de Crecy, count of Flanders, under the leadership of Jacob van Artevelde (q.v.).
But all five leaders were romanized nobles, with Roman names and Roman citizenship, and their risings were directed rather against the Roman government than the Roman empire.
Tradition has probably confused Benjamite risings with Absalom's misguided enterprise; the parts played by Shimei and Meribbaal, at all events, are extremely suggestive.