Under the influence of the Cluniac revival, which began in the 10th century, pilgrimages became increasingly frequent; and the goal of pilgrimage was often Jerusalem.
The pilgrimages to Rome received their greatest impetus through the inauguration of the so-called Year of Jubilee.
All this went to feed revival, which, founded on fear, refused to see in Jesus Christ anything but a stern judge, and made the Virgin Mother and Anna the "grandmother" the intercessors; which found consolation in pilgrimages from shrine to shrine; which believed in crude miracles, and in the thought that God could be best served within convent walls.
In the 12th century the pilgrimages to St-Gilles are cited as among the most celebrated of the time.
He lavished presents on influential saints, built shrines, sent gifts to churches, went on frequent pilgrimages and spent much time in prayer - employing his consummate diplomacy to win celestial allies, and rewarding them richly when their aid secured him any advantage.