The oldest, the Astesana, from Asti in Piedmont, is arranged as a kind of text-book of morality on a scholastic basis; later manuals are merely lists of questions and answers.
We owe to him, too, some manuals used in his educational work; a grammar and works on rhetoric and dialectics.
These two works, which were almost contemporary (Gratian is only about two years earlier)," were destined to have the same fate; they were the manuals, one for theology, the other for canon law, in use in all the universities, taught, glossed and commented on by the most illustrious masters.
Manuals for the study of the sources: Ph.
Without manuals, dictionaries, and easy access to texts, we should go as far astray as any medieval chronicler.