Bonnier has drawn attention to the fact that the mistletoe in its turn, remaining green in the winter, contributes food material to its host when the latter has lost its leaves.
Bonnier showed that the same relationship could be proved in the cases of such plants as the rattle (RhinanThus), the eye-bright (Euphrasia), and other members of the Natural Orders, Scrophulariaceae and Santalaceae, which effect a union between their roots and the roots of other plants growing near them.
Later Bonnier (1886) succeeded in producing fertile thalli by sowing lichen spores and the appropriate algae upon sterile glass plates or portions of bark, and growing them in sterilized air (fig.
(d) The hypophloeodal thallus is often concealed beneath the bark of trees (as in some Verrucariae and Arthoniae), or enters into the fibres of wood (as in Xylographa and After Bonnier, from v.
Bonnier, " Recherches sur la synthbse des lichens," Ann.
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