The Pasargadian kings of Anshan were vassals of the Median empire.
A strong check was thus imposed upon the tendency of freemen to become the vassals of great lords.
He further broke the power of the great vassals by redivisions of their feuds, and by the creation of ~iew marches which he assigned to his German followers.
Small native princes ruled as vassals of Egypt which, after expelling the Hyksos from its borders, had entered upon a series of conquests as far as the Euphrates.
It should also here be noticed that the changes introduced into the holding of the fiefs, whether by altering their boundaries or substituting Frankish for Lombard vassals, were chief among the causes why the feudal system took no permanent hold in Italy.