The demand for very large forgings, especially for guns and armour plate, led to the building of enormous steam hammers.
South Bethlehem is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. The Bethlehem Steel Company manufactures here iron and steel, including Bessemer steels, armour plate, steel rails, government ordnance, drop forgings, iron and steel castings, stationary engines, gas engines, hydraulic pumps, projectiles, steel shaft and pig iron; zinc is smelted and refined; and there are large hosiery and knitting mills, and silk mills and cigar factories.
Closed die forgings have good dimensional accuracy, with improved mechanical properties compared to open die forgings.
All gears were machined from drop forgings and their shafts hardened and ground.