Xerophytes.These are plants which live in very dry places, where the substratum has less than 10% of water.
Such terms as hydrophytes, xerophytes, and halophytes had been used by plant geographers before Warmings time e.g., by Schouw;4 and the terms evidently supply a want felt by botanists as they have come into general use.
The criticisms were directed chiefly to the inclusion of sand dune plants among halophytes, to the exclusion of halophytes from xerophytes, to the inclusion of bog xerophytes among hydrophytes, to the inclusion of all conifers among xerophytes and of all deciduous trees among mesophytes, and to the group of mesophytes in general.
Schimper used the term xerophytes to include plants which live in soils which are physiologically dry, and the term hygrophytes those which live in soils which are physiologically wet or damp. Schimper recognized that the two classes are connected by transitional forms, and that it is useless to attempt to give the matter a statistical basis.
It is only in a general sense like Schimpers that such ecological terms as xerophytes have any value; and it is not possible, at least at present, to frame ecological classes, which shall have a high scientific value, on a basis of this nature.
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