The transpiring surface of xerophytes is frequently reduced.
Many xerophytes are hairy or have sunken stomata which may be further protected by partial plugs of wax:
They are eminently dry-country plants (xerophytes); the narrow leaves are protected from loss of water by a thick cuticle, and have a well-developed sheath which embraces the stem and forms, with the sheaths of the other leaves of the rosette, a basin in which water collects, with fragments of rotting leaves and the like.
For instance, some xerophytes are dry and hard in structure, whilst others are succulent and fleshy.
The effect of external conditions is confined to the modification in various directions of members or organs already existing, and cne very common direction is that of reduction or entire disappearance of parts: for instance, the foliage-leaves of certain xerophytes (e.g.