The question of the delimitation of the frontier between Peru and the neighbouring republics of Ecuador, Colombia,.
An agreement was proposed between Peru and Ecuador in connexion with the limits of the respective republics, but difficulties were created to prevent this proposal from becoming an accomplished fact by the pretensions put forward by Colombia.
The two republics contested the dominion of the sea, and both claimed supreme power over the islands of Corsica and Sardinia.
From 1655 to 1850 Great Britain claimed a protectorate over the Mosquito Indians; but little success attended the various endeavours to plant colonies, and the protectorate was disputed by Spain, the Central American republics, and the United States.
The Ghibellines being unable to maintain their supremacy, the city came to be divided into two almost autonomous republics, the comune headed by the podestd, and the popolo headed by the capitano and militarily organized into twenty companies; the central power was represented by twelve anziani or elders.