Since that year the ramparts have been levelled and their site occupied by public promenades and gardens.
Hanoi resembles a European city in the possession of wide well-paved streets and promenades, systems of electric light and drainage and a good water-supply.
The town, with wide streets and picturesque promenades, is finely situated on a promontory, the base of which is washed on the south by the Cousin, on the east and west by small streams. Its chief building, the church of St Lazare, dates from the 12th century.
Dismantled since 1816, and now largely converted into promenades, the fortifications give the city an irregular pentagonal contour, modified at the north-west corner by the addition of a citadel also pentagonal.
But, in 1822, some of the bastions were converted into promenades, while in 1849 the rest of the fortifications were pulled down so as to allow the city to expand and gradually assume its present aspect.