How Hildebrand paved the way for these reforms during the pontificates of Nicholas II.
And Alexander III., achieved the widest extension of the power entrusted to them, and in many respects their pontificates may be regarded as a preparation for and adumbration of the pontificate of Innocent III.
Lacked vigour, and their pontificates were too brief to allow them to pursue a strong policy against the Germanic The Papacy imperialism.
Under the pontificates of Innocent III.
- This period comprises 13 pontificates, all of short duration (three or four years at the most, and some only a few months), with the exception of that of Boniface VIII., who was pope for nine years.