Another supposition is that the author of the Liber Pontificals gives the papal interpretation of a grant that had been expressed by Pippin in ambiguous terms; and this view is supported by the history of the subsequent controversy between king and pope.
The present practice - according to which the bishop lays the stole over the left shoulder of the deacon, and crosses it over the breast of the priest - is already found in the pontificals of the 10th century.
The insignia (pontificalia or pontificals) of the Roman Catholic bishop are (I) a ring with a jewel, symbolizing fidelity to the church, (2) the pastoral staff, (3) the pectoral cross, (4) the vestments, consisting of the caligae, stockings and sandals, the tunicle, and purple gloves, (5) the mitre, symbol of the royal priesthood, (6) the throne (cathedra), surmounted by a baldachin or canopy, on the gospel side of the choir in the cathedral church.
Des Pontificals Clemens' XIV.
On his return Frederick defeated the pontificals, and in 1230 peace was made at San Germano and the excommunication withdrawn.
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