(2) As regards conjugation only two points need be noted here: (a) it employs the form known as the inchoative, that is to say, the lengthening of the radical of the present in verbs of the third conjugation by means of the syllable ex or ix, a proceeding common to Italian, Walachian, Provenal and French, but altogether unknown in Hispanic Romance; (b) the formation of a great number of past participles in which the termination is added; as in Provenal, not to the radical of the verb, but to that of the perfect: tingut from tinch, pogut from poch, conegut from conech, while in Castilian tenido (formerly also tenudo), podido, conocido, are participles formed from the infinitive.
Catalan, the substantives, adjectives and participles readily form their singular in a and their plural in Cs: arma,armes (an i ma, an i ma s);bona,bones (hon a, boo a s); amada, amades (a m at a, am a t a s).
ConsonantsFinal I readily disappears after nor 1 (tan, t a n t U In; aman, venin, pantin, for amant, venint, &c.; mai, rn u I t u in; ocul, o.c u 1 t u m); the reappears in composition before a vowel (Jon, assimilation to past participles in it.
Pusiese); on the other hand, past participles and gerundives formed from the perfect are to be met withfisiendo for faciendo (perf.
This paper was followed by many others on diverse topics - on rain and dew and the origin of springs, on heat, the colour of the sky, steam, the auxiliary verbs and participles of the English language and the reflection and refraction of light.