This was the decisive action of the campaign in Central India, and Tantia Topi was obliged to seek refuge in the jungles of Rajputana and Bundelkhand, where he was taken by Major Meade, condemned, and executed on the 18th of April 18 J9.
Trade has enormously expanded; new centres of commerce have sprung up in spots which formerly were silent jungles; new staples of trade, such as tea and jute, have rapidly attained importance; and the coalfields and iron ores have opened up prospects of a new and splendid era in the internal development of the country.
Jackals are nocturnal animals, concealing themselves until dusk in woody jungles and other natural lurking places, and then sallying forth in packs, which sometimes number two hundred individuals, and visiting farmyards, villages and towns in search of food.
Moreover, they had lofty forts, numerously garrisoned and plentifully provided with warlike stores; and the approach to them was opposed by thick and dangerous jungles, and broad and boisterous rivers.
The sal tree yields the most important timber; the finest logs are cut in the Khairagarh jungles and floated down the Gogra to Bahramghat, where they are sawn.