Girault, Principes de cot onisation et de ligislation coloniele (3 vols., Paris, 1907-1908); Les Colonies franchises, an encyclopaedia edited by M.
He established the freedom of the instrumentalities of the national government from adverse legislation by the states; freedom of commerce between the different states; the right of Congress to regulate the entire passenger traffic through and from the United States, and the sacredness of public franchises from legislative assault.
His name, and that of his wife Geloria (Elvira), are associated with the grant of the first franchises of Leon.
The Venetians, however, maintained their position in Palestine; and their quarters remained, along with those of the Genoese, as privileged commercial franchises in an otherwise feudal state.
Railway, street railway, telegraph and telephone franchises can be granted only by the Executive Council with the approval of the governor, and none can be operative until it has been approved by the President of the United States.