From 1868 to 1873 he was in charge of a private observatory at Aberdeen, and from 1873-6 of Lord Crawford's observatory at Dunecht, organizing from there the expeditions to Mauritius to observe the transit of Venus in 1874 and to Ascension I.
Eight British government expeditions for observing total solar eclipses were conducted by him between 1870 and 1905.
It appears to be common in the neighbourhood of Cape Town, while the recent Antarctic expeditions have shown that it occurs in various localities from the Falkland Islands to the Antarctic circle.
Dr Natterer, the chemist of the " Pola " expeditions, has expressed the opinion that the poverty of the pelagic fauna is solely due to the want of circulation in the depths.
His ambiguous conduct, however, led to the despatch of two expeditions against the Mirdites and the devastation of their territory.