In the autumn, a spirited attempt was made by the Arkansas Confederates to.
The Civil War between the northern and southern sections of the United States, which began with the bombardment of Fort Sumter on the 12th of April 1861, and came to an end, in the last days of April 1865, with the surrender of the Confederates, was in its scope one of the greatest struggles known to history.
A month later, an easy triumph was obtained by McClellan and Rosecrans against the Confederates of Virginia at Rich Mountain.
- The opposing forces now in the field numbered 190,000 Unionists and half that number of Confederates; sixty-nine warships flew the Stars and Stripes and a number of improvised ironclads and gunboats the rival "Stars and Bars."
On the Potomac the Unionist generals McDowell and Patterson commanded respectively the forces at Washington and Harper's Ferry, opposed by the Confederates under Generals J.