The administrative staff includes, for the purpose of computing the individual quotas of the direct taxes, a director assisted by contrleurs in each department and subordinate to a central authority in Paris, the direction gnrale des contributions directes.
The difference between them and the Roman Church, at this period, was that they still followed the 84 years' cycle in computing Easter, which had been abandoned at Rome for the more accurate cycle of 532 years.
Political and ecclesiastical dissensions occupied the greatest intellects, and the only progress to be recorded is in the art of computing or arithmetic, and the trans pons asinorum of the earlier mathematicians.
His travels and mercantile experience had led E t u eopre him to conclude that the Hindu methods of computing were in advance of those then in general use, and in 1202 he published his Liber Abaci, which treats of both algebra and arithmetic. In this work, which is of great historical interest, since it was published about two centuries before the art of printing was discovered, he adopts the Arabic notation for numbers, and solves many problems, both arithmetical and algebraical.
O% over the value of the factory products in 1900; among its manufactures are tobacco, cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff (value in 1905, $2,879,217), patent medicines (value in 1905, $2,133,198), flour and grist mill products ($1,089,910), men's clothing ($ 8 33, 8 35), and, of less importance, commercial and computing scales and time recorders, chemicals, distilled liquor, beer, fire-alarm apparatus, overalls, agricultural implements, wagons, electrical apparatus, refined oil, sheet metal, paper bags and envelopes, tacks and nails, window glass, glass-ware, clocks, whips and furniture (especially Morris chairs).