After long struggles this was hindered, in France by the bull Romana (Fournier, p. 218), in England by the Bill of Citations, 23 Henry VIII.
The preamble of the " Bill of Citations " is eloquent as to the mischief which it is framed to prevent.
The statute is aimed at appeals; but the words used in it concerning " citations and all other processes " are wide enough to take away also the " original " jurisdiction of the pope.
In regard to both assizes, it, is most important to bear in mind that we possess not laws, but law-books or custumals - records made by lawyers for their fellows of what they conceived to be the law, and supported by legal arguments and citations of cases.
Sir Thomas Beaufort, afterwards earl of Dorset and duke of Exeter (appointed admiral of the fleet 1407, and admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine 1412, which latter office he held till his death in 1426), certainly had a court, with a marshal and other officers, and forms of legal process - mandates, warrants, citations, compulsories, proxies, &c. Complaints of encroachment of jurisdiction by the Admiralty Courts led to the restraining acts, 13 Ric. II.