A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
The water in a soap is rarely directly determined; when it is, the soap, in the form of shavings, is heated to 105° C. until the weight is constant, the loss giving the amount of ' " Soap powders " and " soap extracts " are powdered mixtures of soaps, soda ash or ordinary sodium carbonate.
When I was building, one of these had its nest underneath the house, and before I had laid the second floor, and swept out the shavings, would come out regularly at lunch time and pick up the crumbs at my feet.
The large table covered with books and plans, the tall glass-fronted bookcases with keys in the locks, the high desk for writing while standing up, on which lay an open exercise book, and the lathe with tools laid ready to hand and shavings scattered around--all indicated continuous, varied, and orderly activity.
In this the feathers of the top of the head are very singular, looking like glossy curled shavings of black horn or whalebone, the effect being due to the dilatation of the shaft and its coalescence with the consolidated barbs.