flows through the spiral coolers N and M, and finally through the box H, where it is well mixed before passing the outflow thermometer P. As soon as a steady state is reached, the difference of temperature between the outflow and inflow thermometers, multiplied by the current of water in grammes per minute gives the heat per minute supplied by combustion.
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The compressed air then passes through coolers in which it is cooled to within about 5° of the initial temperature of the cooling water, and is deprived of a portion of its moisture, after which it is admitted into the expansion cylinder and expanded nearly to atmospheric pressure.
In some coolers the cooling surfaces consist of direct-expansion pipes placed in clusters of convenient form; in others brine pipes are used; in others there is a shower of cold brine, and in some cases combinations of cold pipes and brine showers.
Mechanical coolers used in space are generally based upon a linear compressor with clearance seals.